Orthodontics is the specialty dealing with the straightening of teeth position, regulation of the occlusion (bite) and the relation between the 2 maxillaries. The word origins in the old greek and it is formed from “ortho” – right and “dons” – tooth.
Beautiful and straight teeth make a person more attractive, more self – confident. Agglomerated teeth or those with spaces between them are not just an esthetic issue; in time, dental caries (hygiene cannot be carried out accordingly), parodonthopaties (affectation of the periodontium – of the tissue supporting the tooth in the bone), mastication and articular issues can appear.
Advantages of the orthodontic treatment:
- aesthetics – maybe it should not be placed first, but it is the main reason why the patient addresses to the orthodontist; aligned teeth are a major change in our smile, physiognomy and self-confidence;
- functionality – mastication and, in many cases, phonation (speaking) are improving;
- the duration the teeth are maintained on the arch is increased;
- correctly aligned teeth and those which correctly meet their neighbours and antagonists (teeth on the other maxillary) are easier to sanitise and will last longer on the arch;
- teeth were “built” to be constantly and continuously used during out life; an incorrect position of a tooth implies a wrong functionality, with a reduction of its life on the arch.
Even if the orthodontic treatment can last 1 – 2 years, it has important benefits for life.
Stages of an orthodontic treatment:
- first consultation – first stem in the doctor – patient relation; the doctor performs a first evaluation of the patient and the latter expresses his/her desires and expectations. The impression for the study models is made.
- treatment plan draw up: the doctor performs a thorough analysis of the diagnostic models, radiographies and pictures, analysis based on which a complete diagnostic and a treatment plan are drawn up;
- secondary consultation: actually, a discussion with the patient, presenting the treatment plan and the existing options;
- application of the fixed or mobile braces; indications are given for hygiene and food;
- monthly controls and braces activation – usually once every 4 weeks for a period of 1 – 3 years, depending on the case complexity;
- end of treatment – following the end of treatment is a period for stabilising the obtained result (contention period). Performed with a fixed retainer, a transparent tray or a contention plate, depending on each case.
Fixed orthodontic apparatus
Is a prefabricated element with a size and design specially made for each and every tooth. It is fixed on the tooth surface with a special adhesive that does not affect the enamel. The brackets are connected between them through a metallic string that is changed at a certain period of time. This string (spring) exercises a slight and continuous pressure on the teeth which causes the dental movement. After each activation (usually monthly) can appear a slight pain sensation but which disappears after 2-3 days.
The spring is fixed with a system embedded in the bracket, which makes the teeth movement and derotation faster and with reduced sensitivity. The treatment duration is shortened and the patient comfort is increased.
Is resistant and less expensive; the spring can be fixed with elastic modules of different colours in order to give the smile personality.
It is especially recommended for adults whose aesthetics is a main requirement. It is made of ceramics or synthetic sapphire, white or transparent, less visible than the metallic bracket. It is less resistant, more expensive and the friction between it and the string can extend the treatment duration.